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Collectively developed by ESB, dCarbonX and Bord Gáis Energy.

Hydrogen production and storage is crucial to ensure a stable and renewable energy sector. Energy storage is important to balance the variable renewable generation produced by wind and solar and storing hydrogen during high renewable generation periods will allow us to provide clean energy at times when the wind is not blowing, and the sun is not shining.

Hydrogen is a carbon-zero fuel that can be used to produce energy. Hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce electricity by mixing hydrogen and oxygen to form water.

Yes, hydrogen is available today, but minimal volumes are produced from renewable energy. According to the European Commission in 2022, hydrogen accounted for less than 2% of Europe's energy consumption and was primarily used to produce chemical products, such as plastics and fertilisers.

96% of this hydrogen was produced with natural gas, resulting in significant amounts of CO2 emissions. Ireland, and the EU’s hydrogen sector, needs to scale at pace if the EU’s production targets of 10 million tonnes by 2030 are to be met.

Hydrogen can be produced in different ways and is classified by its origin.

  • Renewable or green hydrogen is produced from water electrolysis driven by renewable electricity.
  • Fossil-origin hydrogen or grey hydrogen is produced from fossil sources such as natural gas or coal.
  • Blue hydrogen is also produced from fossil sources, but CO2 emissions are captured and stored underground.

Yes. Depending on the source of energy (fossil or renewable) and post-processing steps (carbon capture and storage) the hydrogen produced can be considered zero emissions, low emissions, or high emissions.

Hydrogen can be produced in different ways. In general, there are three industrial processes for hydrogen production, water electrolysis, from natural gas, and coal gasification. Each of these processes generates side products. In water electrolysis, it is oxygen. When it is produced from fossil sources it is mainly carbon dioxide.

Once produced, hydrogen can be stored in different forms, the most common way is in compressed gaseous form in tanks or geological cavities.